Sedatives And Hypnotics medication types
Sedatives are various groups of drugs manufactured for medical purposes to relax the central nervous system. Also known as tranquilizers or depressants of the central nervous system (CNS), they surround the drug classes such as barbiturates, benzodiazepines, sedative-hypnotics, non-benzodiazepines, anesthetics, antihistamines, and narcotic opioid, as well as compounds plant.
History of sedatives
Before the era of the medicine, modern, the sedative most commonly prescribed to the voltage of ease, relaxation of cause and help to forget about all of the problems were alcohol. Its benefits were actually the reason for which alcohol has gained such popularity and are always a sedative and the most commonly abused of all the time.
Attempts to find a sedative other than alcohol to treat anxiety and nervousness have started in the 19th century by the introduction of bromides, which were discovered in 1826. These medications were extremely popular for this purpose up to their propensity to accumulate in the fuselage, and the toxic effects of the product became known to the medical profession.
Because of their toxicity, bromides were replaced by barbiturates early in the 20th century, who in the beginning were also advertised as sedative medications relevant and reliable. However, in problems in a short period of time with dependence, tolerance and take an overdose mortal become obvious. Because the margin of safety for barbiturates was too narrow, the research strives to sedatives safer extended.
In 1950 the first benzodiazepines were marketed as substitutes eligible for barbiturates dangerous. Although initially viewed as complete safe and free of problems of dependence, tolerance, and suppression, today we know that benzodiazepines are antianxiety medications less than ideal, and that their long-term use can cause all the above effects associated with their predecessors sedatives.
During the 1970s and 1980s, there was an epidemic of prescriptions written for sedatives (for example, 100 million prescriptions were written for only benzodiazepines in 1973). They are always one of the classes of drugs most prescribed, although the medical profession is aware of the problem.
Mechanism of action and effects
Sedative drugs are usually classified according to the way they affect the human body. They represent various groups of drugs that share an ability to reduce the activity of the CNS and reduce the level of the brain in consciousness. The lack of similarity between structures of drugs belonging to different types has made it difficult to propose a receiver or a common mechanism of action.
This is best explained if we observe two groups of drugs commonly prescribed - barbiturates and benzodiazepines. For example, the medication type barbiturate cause a general depression of most neuronal activity, thus they are considered non-selective. This is the reason why their use is in practice always accompanied by some degree of disability of cognitive function.
In contrast, benzodiazepines affect selector neurons that have receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmitter (GABA), an inhibitory transmitter essential in several regions of the brain. In the presence of these drugs, the inhibitory effects of GABA are increased, which explains the depression sélectrice of the CNS caused by benzodiazepines.
The Absorption of most of the sedative is fast enough and it goes through the gastro-intestinal tract. Two have mentioned that groups of drugs that are primarily absorbed in the small intestine, and the clinical consequences are determined by their ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. The Most sedatives are metabolized with shadow intermediaries pharmacologically active, and the elimination occurs mainly through hepatic metabolism.
The effects of sedatives tend to be dependent on the dose, and often the only difference between the anxiolytic and hypnotic effect is dose-dependent. As a Result, the same medicine may be used for the two purposes just by varying the dose. By increasing the dose even further, a condition anesthetic can be achieved.